Government: A government is the institution that administers the public policy and affairs of a political unit of people. Every government, in turn, is controlled by and serves the interests of the sovereign of the government. Based upon the nature of the sovereign, governments are either authoritarian or democratic.
Purpose of Government: The purpose of government is to maintain the sovereign of the government in its position of power over the government and to accomplish the objectives that have been set forth by the sovereign.
Sovereign: The group of people that controls a government.
Democracy: Democracy is the form of government in which the citizenry (the politically equal citizens; the people as a whole) constitute the sovereign of the government. The sovereign controls the operations of government directly or through elected representatives who serve as trustees of the citizens. There are three levels of democracy: 1) Electoral democracy, 2) Liberal democracy, and 3) True democracy. Democracies are characterized by the "rule of law."
Rule of Law: Defined and consistent rule; limited government. The concept of governmental authority which holds that: 1) the scope of government is limited to those activities that are specified by the constitution (foundational law) of the government and by the body of written, duly enacted, and codified laws of government, 2) the bodies of such laws are superior to any other directive of government, and 3) all citizens are equal before the law regardless of social, political, or other standing.
Purpose of Democracy: The purpose of democracy is to secure the rights and liberty of the sovereign: the people as a whole. The parameters that define the rights and liberty of the people are human rights, living standards, and quality of life standards. To achieve its purpose, a democracy is obligated to solve societal problems efficaciously and in a manner that accomplishes the honorable objectives of the people by honorable means. Democratic governments constantly seek to improve their public-service performance by means of the rule of law, and their policies reflect the highest aspirations of the citizenry.
Citizen: An individual who is recognized by a government as being a political member of that government. In a democracy, the highest unit of political power is citizenship and each citizen is equal to every other citizen in terms of his or her possession of political, legal and other human rights.
Three Requirements of Democracy: A government must meet the following three requirements to satisfy the purpose of democracy.
First requirement: recognize the citizenry (the citizens as a whole; "the people") as the sovereign of government
Second requirement: secure the full complement of human rights of the people
Third requirement: solve societal problems efficaciously for the benefit of the people as a whole. The third requirement requires the application of science and engineering disciplines, and related quality standards and programs, to laws and the lawmaking process.
Three Levels of Democracy:
Electoral Democracy: An electoral democracy is a government that meets the first requirement of democracy.
Liberal Democracy: A liberal democracy is a government that satisfies the first and second requirements of democracy.
True Democracy: The highest level of democracy. A true democracy is a government that meets all three requirements of democracy and thus fully satisfies the purpose of democracy.
Authoritarian Government: The form of government that has two unequal political classes: (1) The superior, or "elite," ruling class of people that constitutes the sovereign of the government and (2) The inferior ruled or subject class of people. The purpose of an authoritarian government is to maintain the ruling-class sovereign in its position of political power over the government and the subject class of people. In marked contrast with democracy, an authoritarian government is under no self-imposed obligation to secure the rights and liberty of, or otherwise act in the best interests of the subject class of people within its jurisdiction. Based upon the nature of the sovereign, there are three categories of authoritarian government: aristocracy, ideocracy, and theocracy. Authoritarian governments are characterized by the "rule of man."
Rule of Man: Arbitrary rule; tyranny; rule by and for the rulers; unlimited government; the concept of governmental authority which holds that the temporal orders of the ruling-class leaders of government are superior to any other directive of government. Under the rule of man, the scope of government is unlimited and the laws of government may be arbitrarily enforced, interpreted, overruled, or ignored by the leaders of government.
Purpose of Authoritarian Government: The purpose of an authoritarian government is to maintain the sovereign (the ruling class) in its position of political power, privilege, and wealth, and to accomplish the objectives of the sovereign.
Aristocracy: An authoritarian government in which the sovereign is a group of "aristocrats" whose claim to the position of sovereign is based upon wealth, birthright, "royalty," military rank, or other arbitrary factor.
Ideocracy: An authoritarian government in which the leaders of a secular belief system, or ideology (political party), constitute the sovereign of the government. The principal objectives of an ideocracy are to maintain the power and privileges of the sovereign and to advance its secular belief system.
Theocracy: An authoritarian government in which the heads of a religious belief system constitute the sovereign of the government. The principal objectives of a theocracy are to maintain the power and privileges of the sovereign and to advance its religious belief system.
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